|The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with China and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.|
Security guard in China
|Related jobs||Bouncer, doorman, guard, bodyguard|
Often, security officers are uniformed and act to protect property by maintaining a high visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate.
Since at least the Middle Ages in Europe, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function. This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security guards are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function.
Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the “detect, deter, observe and report” methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen’s arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement at the request of a police officer, sheriff, and others.
In addition to the methodology mentioned above, a private security officer’s primary duty is the prevention and deterrence of crime. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property. In fact, they frequently have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. Security officers are often trained to perform arrest and control procedures (including handcuffing and restraints), operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, and perform other tasks as required by the contractee they are serving.
Many security officers are required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons, firearms, and pepper spray (e.g. the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services  in California has requirements that a license for each item listed must be carried while on duty). Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties.
Positions are also set to grow in the U.S., with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016. In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training, especially those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls, schools, and any other area where the general public congregate.
One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies (particularly fire insurance carriers) will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence; for a high risk or high value venue, the discount can often exceed the money being spent on its security program.
This is because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs. Also, the presence of security personnel (particularly in combination with effective security procedures) tends to diminish “shrinkage,” theft, employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or even sabotage. Many casinos hire security guards to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino’s bank.
Security personnel may also perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates; meaning, they ensure that employees and visitors display proper passes or identification before entering the facility. Security officers are often called upon to respond to minor emergencies (lost persons, lockouts, dead vehicle batteries, etc.) and to assist in serious emergencies by guiding emergency responders to the scene of the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, and by documenting what happened on an incident report.
Armed security officers are frequently contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene.
Patrolling is usually a large part of a security officer’s duties. Often these patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. The most commonly used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it.
Recently, electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, and downloadable logging capabilities. Regular patrols are, however, becoming less accepted as an industry standard, as it provides predictability for the would-be criminal, as well as monotony for the security officer on duty.
Random patrols are easily programmed into these systems, allowing greater freedom of movement and unpredictability. Global positioning systems are also easing their way into the market as a more effective means of tracking officer movement and patrol behavior.
Although security officers differ greatly from police officers, military personnel, federal agents/officers, and the like, Australia and the United States have a growing proportion of security personnel that have former police or military experience, including senior management personnel. On the other hand, some security officers, young people in particular, use the job as practical experience to use in applying to law enforcement agencies.
Security personnel are classified as either of the following
Industry terms for various security personnel include: security guard, security agent, security officer, safety patrol, private police, company police, security enforcement officer and public safety. Other job titles in the security industry include bouncer, bodyguards, executive protection agent loss prevention, alarm responder, hospital security officer, mall security officer, crime prevention officer, private patrol officer, and private patrol operator.
State and local governments sometimes regulate the use of these terms by law—for example, certain words and phrases that “give an impression that he or she is connected in any way with the federal government, a state government, or any political subdivision of a state government” are forbidden for use by California security licensees by Business and Professions Code Section 7582.26. So the terms “private homicide police” or “special agent” would be unlawful for a security licensee to use in California. Similarly, in Canada, various acts   specifically prohibits private security personnel from using the terms Probation Officer, law enforcement, police, or police officer.
Alberta and Ontario probibit the use of the term ‘Security Officer’ which is in widespread use in the United States for many decades. Recent changes to the act have also introduced restrictions on uniform and vehicle colours and markings to make private security personnel clearly distinctive from police personnel. Some sources feel that some of these restrictions are put in place to satisfy the Canadian Police Association.
There is a marked difference between persons performing the duties historically associated with watchmen and persons who take a more active role in protecting persons and property. The former, often called “guards,” are taught the mantra “observe and report,” are minimally trained, and not expected to deal with the public or confront criminals.
The latter are often highly trained, sometimes armed depending on contracts agreed upon with clientele, and are more likely to interact with the general public and to confront the criminal element. These employees tend to take pride in the title “Security Officer” or “Protection Officer” and disdain the label of “guard.”
Ironically enough, there may be no relationship between duties performed and compensation—many mall “security officers” who are exposed to serious risks make less per hour than “industrial security guards” with less training and responsibility. However, there are now more positions in the security role that separate not just the titles, but the job itself. The roles have progressed and so have the areas for which security people are needed. All security jobs vary in pay and duties at present.
The term “agent” is particularly problematic in the security industry because it can describe not only a civil legal relationship between an employee and their employer or contractor (“agent of the owner” in California PC 602), but also describes a person in government service (“Special Agent Jones of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.”) However we should then also consider the fact that this title is also made available to banking agents, loan agents and real estate agents.
Security “agents” found in loss prevention and personal or executive protection (bodyguards) typically work in plainclothes, without a uniform, and are usually highly trained to act lawfully in direct defense of life and/or property. There is also confusion with bail enforcement agents, or as they are popularly known “bounty hunters,” who are sometimes regulated by the same agencies which regulate private security.
Security personnel are essentially private citizens, and therefore are bound by the same laws and regulations as the citizenry they are contracted to serve, and therefore are not allowed to represent themselves as law enforcement under penalty of law.
New South Wales – (Police) Security Industry Act 1997 & Security Industry Regulation 2007; Victoria – (Police) Private Security Act 2004; Queensland – (Justice & Attorney-General) Security Providers Act 1993; South Australia – (Consumer & Business Affairs) Security and Investigation Agents Act 1995; Western Australia – (Police) Security & Related Activities (Control) Act 1996 & Security & Related Activities (Control) Regulations 1997; Tasmania – (Police) Security and Investigation Agents Act 2002; Northern Territory – (Justice) Private Security Act & Private Security (Security Officer/Crowd Controller/Security Firms/Miscellaneous Matters) Regulations; Australian Capital Territory – (Regulatory Services) Security Industry Act 2003 & Security Industry Regulation 2003. All of this legislation was aimed to enhance the intrigity of the private security industry.Any person who conducts a business or is employed in a security related field within Australia is required to be licensed. Each of the six (6) states and two (2) territories of Australia have separate legislation that covers all security activities. Licensing management in each state/territory is varied and is carried out by either Police, Attorney General’s Department, Justice Department or the Department of Consumer Affairs.
All persons licensed to perform security activities are required to undertake a course of professional development in associated streams that are recognised nationally. This has not always been the case and the introduction of this aspect should regulate the educational standards/knowledge base expected so that the particular job can be competently undertaken.
Strict requirements are laid down as to the type of uniform and badging used by security companies. Uniforms or badging that may be confused with a police officer are not permitted similarly, the use of the title ‘Security Police’ or ‘Private Detective’ are unacceptable. Whilst the term security guard is used by companies, government bodies and individuals, the term security officer is deemed more suitable. ‘Bouncers’ are Crowd Controllers and Store Detectives are Loss Prevention or Asset Protection Officers.
Security Officers are not permitted to carry firearms, handcuffs or batons unless they have a legitimate requirement to do so and then only when working and have the appropriate sub-class accreditation to their license.
In Canada, private security falls under the jurisdiction of Canada’s ten provinces and three territories. All ten of Canada’s provinces and one of its territories (the Yukon) have legislation that regulates the contract security industry. These eleven jurisdictions require that companies that provide security guard services and their employees be licensed.
Most provinces in Canada regulate the use of handcuffs and weapons (such as firearms and batons) by contract security companies and their employees, either banning such use completely or permitting it only under certain circumstances.
Canada’s federal laws also restrict the ability of security guards to be armed. For example, section 17 of Firearms Act makes it an offense for any person, including a security guard, to possess prohibited or restricted firearms (i.e. handguns) anywhere outside of his or her home.
There are two exceptions to this prohibition found in sections 18 and 19 of the Act. Section 18 deals with transportation of firearms while Section 19 deals with allowing persons to carry such firearms on their persons to protect their lives or the lives of other persons, or for the performance of their occupation (Armour Car Guards, Licensed Trappers), provided an Authorization to Carry (ATC) is first obtained.
Private security in the province of British Columbia is governed by two pieces of legislation: the Security Services Act and the Security Services Regulation. These laws are administered and enforced by the Security Programs and Police Technology Division of the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General.
The legislation requires that guards must be at least 19 years old, undergo a criminal background check, and successfully complete a training course. As far as weapons, British Columbia law severely restricts their use by security guards. Section 11(1)(c) of the Security Services Regulation prohibits security personnel from carrying or using any “item designed for debilitating or controlling a person or animal”, which the government interprets to include all weapons. As well, section 11 forbids private security from using or carrying restraints, such as handcuffs, unless authorized by the government. However, as in other parts of Canada, armoured car guards are permitted to carry firearms.
In the past, only personnel that worked for contract security, that is, security companies, were regulated in British Columbia. However, as of September 1, 2009, in-house security guards and private investigators came under the jurisdiction of the Security Services Act and Security Services Regulation. The same occurred to bodyguards and bouncers, effective November 1, 2009.
Armed private security are much rarer in Europe, and nonexistent in many countries, such as the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Switzerland. In developing countries (with host country permission), an armed security force composed mostly of ex-military personnel is often used to protect corporate assets, particularly in war-torn regions.
As a requirement of the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the UK now requires all contract security guards to have a valid Security Industry Authority license. The licence must be displayed when on duty, although a dispensation may be granted for store detectives, bodyguards and others who need to operate without being identified as a security guard. This dispensation is not available to Vehicle Immobilisers. Licenses are valid for three years and require the holders to undergo formal training, and are also to pass mandatory Criminal Records Bureau checks. Licences for Vehicle Immobilisers are valid for one year. Armed guarding and guarding with a weapon are illegal.
In Finland, all contract security guards are required to have a valid license granted by police. Temporary license is valid for four months and normal license for five years. License requires a minimum 40-hour course for temporary license and 60 hours more for a normal license. Additionally a narrow security vetting is required. The 40-hour course allows the carrying of a fixed-length baton and handcuffs, separate training and license is required for the security guard to carry pepper spray, extendable baton or a firearm. Rehearse of weapons usage is mandatory every year and is regulated by the Ministry of The Interior, to ensure the safe handling of pepper spray and such. In Finland, a security guard has the right to detain a person “red-handed”, or seen committing a crime and the right to search the detained individual for harmful items and weapons. An individual who has been forcefully detained can only be released by the police. All companies providing security guarding services are also required to have a valid license from Ministry of the Interior.
In The Netherlands security guards Beveiligingsbeambte must undergo a criminal backgroundcheck by the local police department in the area where the private security company is located. To become a securtiy guard in The Netherlands a person must complete the basic training level 2 Beveiliger2, to complete the training a trainee must undergo a three month intership with a private security company that is licensed by the svpb, this is the board that controls security exams. A trainee guard must pass for his diploma within one year, if the trainee does not pass he is not allowed to work anymore until the trainee completes his training with a positive result, after a positive result a new ID can be issued and is valid for three years, after that the guard must undergo a background check by the local police again. Security guards in The Netherlands are not allowed to carry any kind of weapon or handcuffs. Every uniformed security guard in The Netherlands must have the V symbol on its uniform to ensure the public they are dealing with a private guard, this rule is mandatory by the Ministry of justice. Security uniforms may not look like similar to police uniforms, and may not contain any kind of rank designation, and the collor yellow or gold are not allowed to used because the Dutch police uses gold accents in their uniforms, also wearing a uniformcap is not longer allowed. Every new uniform design or addition must be approved by the ministry of justice before use. A patrol vehicle may not look like a police striped vehicle. The only private security guards that are allowed to carry firearms are those who work for the military or Dutch National bank (De Nederlandsche Bank) this is were the national gold reserve can be found.
In Hong Kong, the term Security Officer refers to a senior staff member who supervises a team of security personnel. The staff who work under security officers’ supervision are called Security Guards.
Before 1 October 1996, private security personnel were regulated by the Watchmen Ordinance (Chapter 299). However, there were many problems with that system of regulation—for example, there were no restrictions as to whom may establish private security service companies to provide security services to a client. Also, there was no regulation of people whom may perform installation of security systems.
Some employers hired “caretakers” instead of security guards to avoid their responsibilities under the ordinance (in formal definition, “caretakers” are supposed to provide facilities management service, although security service, which provided to residential properties, takes some parts of facilities management service). As a result, the Hong Kong Government enacted a wholly new law, the Security and Guarding Services Ordinance (Chapter 460), to replace the Watchmen Ordinance.
According to the Security and Guarding Services Ordinance: No individual shall do, agree to do, or hold himself/herself out as doing, or as available to do, security work for another person unless he/she does so-
security work means any of the following activities-
security device means a device designed or adapted to be installed in any premises or place, except on or in a vehicle, for the purpose of detecting or recording- (Amended 25 of 2000 s. 2)
Any applicant who wishes to apply for a Security Personnel Permit (SPP) must:
Although the Security and Guarding Services Industry Authority ( SGSIA ) is the agency in charge of the security service industry, all applicants must submit their application and pay the fee by mail or in person to Hong Kong Police Force(License Section).
Security Personnel Permit was separated to four types: A, B, C, and D.
The permit is valid for five years. All holders must renew their permit before it expires, or they will lose their qualification to work, as such, until their permit is renewed.
The type A and Type B security service are gradually combined with property management service, though the boundary between these two industries is unclear.
Security Guards in Hong Kong do not have special powers of arrest above that of the ordinary citizen, i.e. citizen’s arrest, also known locally as the “101 arrest power.” The Section 101 in the Criminal Procedure Ordinance addresses that arrest of an offender by a private citizen is allowed in certain circumstances if the offender is attempting an arrestable offense. Once arrested, the suspect must be delivered to a police office as soon as possible.
An arrestable offence is defined as any crime carrying a sentence of more than 12 months imprisonment. No security personnel are allowed to search other person, nor are they allowed to get personal information from other people, with the exception of some specific circumstances.
In Israel, almost all security guards carry a firearm, primarily to prevent terror attacks. Security guards are common: they perform entrance checks at shopping malls, transportation terminals, government and other office buildings, and many stores. Many locations with a high number of visitors, such as the Jerusalem Bus Station, employ X-ray machines to check passenger’s bags; in other places, they are opened and visually inspected. As of 2009, private security guards have also replaced official security forces at some checkpoints inside and on the border of the West Bank, as well as the crossings to Gaza.
Security guard companies need to apply to the Ministry of Internal Security.
Security guards along with the rest of the private security industry are regulated under Act 56 of 2001, Private Security Industry Regulation Act.
Most security officers do not carry weapons and have the same powers of arrest as a private citizen, called a “private person” arrest, “any person” arrest, or “citizen’s arrest.” If weapons are carried, additional permits and training are usually required. Armed security personnel are generally used to protect sensitive sites such as government and military installations, armored money transports, casinos, banks (or other financial institutions), nuclear power plants, etc. However, armed security is quickly becoming a standard for vehicle patrol officers and on many other non-government sites.
Security guard/officer continue to gain broader responsibilities. A growing trend is the increased use of private security to support services previously provided by police departments. James F. Pastor addresses substantive legal and public policy issues which directly or indirectly relate to the provision of security services. These can be demonstrated by the logic of alternative or supplemental service providers. The use of private police has particular appeal because property or business owners can directly contract for public safety services, thereby providing welcome relief for municipal budgets. Finally, private police functions can be flexible, depending upon the financial, organizational, political, and situational circumstances of the client.
Arizona Licensed security companies are required to provide eight hours of pre-assignment training to all persons employed as security guards before the employee acts in the capacity of a security guard. There is a state-mandated curriculum that must be taught, and subjects covered must include criminal law and laws of arrest, uniforms and grooming, communications, use of force, general security procedures, crime scene preservation, ethics and first response.
An ADT Bel-Air Patrol vehicle
Security Guards are required to obtain a license from the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services (BSIS), of the California Department of Consumer Affairs. Applicants must be at least 18 years old, undergo a criminal history background check through the California Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and complete a 40-hour course of required training. This required training is broken down into smaller training sections and time-lines. The first is 8-hours of BSIS-designed instruction on powers to arrest and weapons. Then, within 30 days of getting the individual officers license, they must receive 16-hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses. Finally, within 6-months of getting their license, they must receive an additional 16-hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses.
California security officers are also required to complete 8-hours of annual training on security-related topics, after the first, above mentioned 40-hours are complete.
New Jersey As of 2006 all security personnel must undergo a state mandated certified training program. This law commonly referred to SORA is the state’s effort to increase the quality of security personnel.
Oklahoma Security officers in Oklahoma are licensed by CLEET (Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training). To be licensed as an unarmed officer an individual must be at least 18 years of age and undergo 40 hours of classroom training and pass criminal history checks. Armed guards must be 21 years of age, have another 40 hours of classroom training, qualify with their firearm and pass a psychological evaluation.
Pennsylvania No licensing requirements to be an unarmed security guard. However, armed security guards must undergo and successfully complete a 40 hour training course (including shooting range time) in order to be certified to carry weapons and on watch while on duty under the Lethal Weapons Training Act (commonly referred to as Act 235 certification). Certification involves qualifying on a pistol range, with firing of 50 rounds of .38 cal. ammo. You are also required to qualify on a shotgun. The certification is good for five years at which time an eight hour refresher course must be taken or the certification is revoked.
South Carolina All Security Officers have the same authority and power to make an arrest as Sheriff’s Deputies, while on the property they are payed to protect. Most companies prohibit this authority by policy due to lack of confidence and liability fears. Private Officers may respond to calls for service, make arrests and use blue lights and traffic radar. They may also be specially authorized by the State Law Enforcment Division (SLED), to issue Uniform Traffic Tickets to violators. Security Officers are licensed or registered (as appropriate) by SLED for one year at a time. Training for unarmed officers is 8 hours, an additional 8 hours is required for a security weapons permit or a concealed security weapons permit. Additional hours are required to be documented for officers issuing public or private tickets as well as officers that will be using batons, pepper spray or tasers.
Virginia Security officers in Virginia are required to be licensed by DCJS (Department of Criminal Justice Services). To be licensed as an unarmed security officer one must go through 18 hours of classroom training from a licensed instructor in order to obtain this card and it must be done by the end of their 90 days after hire with a Security company. Every two years the card must be renewed, by completing an inservice with a licensed instructor. To be licensed as an armed security officer one must complete an additional 16 hours of firearms training, 6 hours of training in conducting a lawful arrest, and qualification with the type and caliber of weapon they intend to carry. Firearms endorsements must be renewed annually by completing an inservice and passing a firearms qualification. Licensed armed security officers are authorized under state code to arrest  for any offense committed in their presence while they are on duty at the location they are hired to protect. They may also be granted the authority by the chief law enforcement officer in their jurisdiction to issue summons to appear in court for felonies and misdemeanors.For more information on DCJS codes and regs click here.
St Louis, Missouri Security officers are required to be licensed by the St Louis County Police or St Louis City Police. St Louis County Security Officer training is a two day class and yearly renewal class. Armed officers must shoot bi-annually to keep their “armed” status. County license is called a Metropolitan License meaning to is good for St Louis City and County. More Info for St Louis County License is available though the County website posted here: St Louis City Web site has all the info regarding licensing requirements due to fact they are the same in city and county.The City web site is posted here. Readers should note that this only applys to persons working in security in St Louis City or St Louis County
Security personnel are not police officers, unless they are security police, but are often identified as such due to similar uniforms and behaviors , especially on private property. Security personnel in the U.S. derive their powers from state laws, that allow them a contractual arrangement with clients that give them Agent of the Owner powers.
This includes a nearly unlimited power to question with the absence of probable cause requirements that frequently dog public law enforcement officers, provided that the security officer does not tread on the rights and liberties of others as guaranteed by the United States Constitution.
Some jurisdictions do commission or deputize security officers and give them limited additional powers, particularly when employed in protecting public property such as mass transit stations. This is a special case that is often unique to a particular jurisdiction or locale. Additionally, security officers may also be called upon to act as an agent of law enforcement if a police officer, sheriff’s deputy, etc. is in immediate need of help and has no available backup.
Some security officers do reserve police powers and are typically employed directly by governmental agencies. Typically, these are sworn law enforcement personnel whose duties primarily involve the security of a government installation, and are also a special case.
Other local and state governments occasionally enter into special contracts with security agencies to provide patrol services in public areas. These personnel are sometimes referred to as “private police officers.”
Sometimes police officers work as security personnel while not on duty. This is usually done for extra income, and work is particularly done in hazardous jobs such as bodyguard work and bouncers outside nightclubs. 
Police are called in when a situation warrants a higher degree of authority to act upon reported observations that security does not have the authority to act upon, however, some states allow Licensed Security Officer the full arrest powers equal to that of a Sheriff Deputy.
In 1976, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration‘s National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported:
‘One massive resource, filled with significant numbers of personnel, armed with a wide array of technology, and directed by professionals who have spent their entire adult lifetimes learning how to prevent and reduce crime, has not been tapped by governments in the fight against criminality. The private security industry, with over one million workers, sophisticated alarm systems and perimeter safeguards, armored trucks, sophisticated mini-computers, and thousands of highly skilled crime prevention experts, offers a potential for coping with crime that can not be equalled by any other remedy or approach…Underutilized by police, all but ignored by prosecutors and the judiciary, and unknown to corrections officials, the private security professional may be the only person in this society who has the knowledge to effectively prevent crime.’ 
In New York, the Area Police/Private Security Liaison program was organized in 1986 by the NYPD commissioner and four former police chiefs working in the private security industry to promote mutual respect, cross-training, and sharing of crime-related information between public police and private security.
Private Security personnel outnumber police. From the Australian Bureau of Statistics Report in 2006 there were 52,768 full-time security officers in the security industry compared to 44,898 police officers.
Economist Robert B. Reich, in his 1991 book The Work of Nations, stated that in the United States, the number of private security guards and officers was comparable to the number of publicly paid police officers. He used this phenomenon as an example of the general withdrawal of the affluent from existing communities where governments provide public services.
Instead, the wealthy pay to provide their own premium services, through voluntary, exclusive associations. As taxpayer resistance has limited government budgets, and as the demand for secure homes in gated communities has grown, these trends have continued in the 1990s and 2000s.
In the aftermath of 9/11, the trend in the US is one of a quiet transformation of the role of security guards into first responders in case of a terrorist attack or major disaster. This has resulted in longer guard instruction hours, extra training in Terrorism tactics and increased laws governing private security companies in some states.
The trend in the UK at the time of writing (March 2008) is one of polarisation. The market in Manned Guarding (the security industry term for the security guards most people are familiar with) is diverging toward two opposite extremes; one typified by a highly trained and well paid security officer; the other with security officers on or about minimum wage with only the minimum training required by law.
Within the “in-house” sector, where security personnel are not subject to licensing under the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the same divergence can be seen; with some companies opting for in-house security to maintain control of their standards, whilst others use it as a route to cheaper, non-regulated, security.
The vigiles were soldiers assigned to guard the city of Rome, often credited as the origin of both security personnel and police, although their principal duty was as a fire brigade. There have been night watchmen since at least the Middle Ages in Europe; walled cities of ancient times also had watchmen. A special chair appeared in Europe sometime in the late Middle Ages, called the watchman’s chair; this unupholstered wooden chair had a forward slanting seat to prevent the watchman from dozing off during his watch.
In June, 1947, the United States Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act placing many restrictions on labor unions. Section 9 (B) (3) of the act prevents the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from certifying for collective bargaining any unit which mixes security employees with non-security employees. This restricts the ability of security employees to join any union that also represents other types of employees.
They may be part of an independent, “security-only” union, not affiliated with any coalition of other types of labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). A union which also represents non-security employees may also represent and bargain on behalf of security employees with the employer’s consent.
Two of the largest security unions are the Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America (SPFPA) and the United Government Security Officers of America (UGSOA).
In 1948 with the Taft-Hartley restrictions well into effect, the Detroit, Michigan area security guards of United Auto Workers (UAW) Amalgamated Local 114 were forced to break away and start a separate “Plant Guards Organizing Committee”. The NLRB ruled that as an affiliate of the CIO, the committee was indirectly affiliated with production unions and therefore ineligible for certification under the new restrictions.
The committee was then forced to completely withdraw from the CIO and start the independent United Plant Guard Workers of America. By the 1990s, this union had evolved to include many other types of security officers and changed its name to the SPFPA.
In 1992, the USGOA was formed. It specializes in organizing federal, state, and local government security officers, but since May, 2000 has been open to representing other types of security personnel as well.
The Service Employees International Union (SEIU) has also sought to represent security employees, although its efforts have been complicated by the Taft-Harley Act because the SEIU also represents janitors, trash collectors, and other building service employees.
Many security guards in Canada are unionized. The primary unions which represent security guards in Canada are the United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW), Local 333, and the Canadian branch of the United Steelworkers (USW). In contrast to the legal restrictions in the United States, Canadian labor relations boards will certify bargaining units of security guards for a Canadian Labour Congress (CLC)-affiliated union or in the same union with other classifications of employees.
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